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Whereas most of the Actions of the LIFE EX-TRA Project have been carried out in all the project areas, some of them were specific to some areas and in general the technical and methodological details were adapted to the local and national needs.

In Italy the project addressed wolves and bears in the two national parks in Central Italy, whereas in the Appennino Tosco-emiliano National Park, where no bears are present, only wolves were be targeted. In the Romanian project areas both wolves and bears have benefited from the project activities. In Bulgaria and Greece wolves are a game species (in Greece only below the 45th parallel) and therefore are ineligible for funding under the LIFE Program. Therefore in these countries project actions targeted only bears.

In all the project areas the monitoring of the presence of wolves and bears and the damage they cause on livestock has set the basis for several management actions in the course of the project and beyond. Another fundamental common component was the research about stakeholders and their opinions and expectations. This was be performed by a thematic task force composed by representatives from Italy, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece. On the basis of the results of this assessment discussion groups were be organized in which the direct involvement of the main stakeholders in management decisions has been be encouraged.

The use of livestock guarding dogs and of electric fences to prevent damage caused by large carnivores on livestock was disseminated, and to improve the management of potential problems caused by bears so called "Bear Emergency Teams" have been set up. These are teams of specialised people who are called to intervene in conflict situations according to specific protocols.

The exchanges of experience and the actions for the transfer of best practices between project participants have been fundamental part of the project. In particular, a series of training courses have been organized to teach the staff techniques and rules for the analysis of damage caused by predators.

Also the dissemination of information about the project, about wolves and bears, and about ways of best coexistence, has been an important common component of the project in all the project areas.

 

Credits: Annette Mertens

 

Credits: Paolo Forconi

 

Credits: Annette Mertens