Home Objectives

The conservation of wolves and bears has greatly progressed in the past 30 years, a fact that is also demonstrated by a general increase of the populations of these species around Europe. However, in some areas large carnivore populations are far from being “safe” from direct human persecution and they also suffer from the secondary effects of an increasing human pressure: decrease of habitat availability, localized scarcity of wild prey and diseases. In specific demographic situations, and as combinations of different factors, these problems can still strongly endanger the predator populations, even in countries such as Romania, where still thousands of wolves and bears live.
Special efforts are therefore always needed in order to try to reduce as much as possible the main threats for the survival of these species.
One of the main roadblocks for the long term conservation of wolves and bears is the conflict with the interests of local populations. Although this threat has been generally recognized decades ago, an optimal tool to prevent it does not exist – wolves and bears still pose threats to human activities (and sometimes to humans), and people still develop negative attitudes towards these species.

In this context the aim of the LIFE EX-TRA project was to improve the know-how of conservation actors in what concerns activities for the conservation of wolves and bears, about essential issues of carnivore conservation: biological and ecological aspects, interactions with other species, conflict management and stakeholder involvement.

The specific objectives were:

  • to transfer best practices and encourage experience exchange between direct and indirect project participants
  • to strengthen the participation of interest groups in the identification and the implementation of various phases of large carnivore management
  • to transfer information to interest group about ways to manage conflict situations with wild predators
  • to strengthen the correct use of damage prevention tools
  • to develop the knowledge and institutional basis for monitoring the conflicts between large carnivores and human activities
  • to acquire the necessary know-how for the management of conflict generated by habituated bears and to develop Bear Emergency Teams
  • to implement actions for the conservation of ungulate populations (Red deer and Roe deer) in order to raise the availability of wild prey as a food basis for the wolf population
Credits: Annette Mertens


Credits: Callisto


Credits: Umberto Di Nicola - PNGSL Archive


Credits: Alexandar Dutsov


Credits: Annette Mertens